Pioneering The Progress With Apple iPhone 5S


The latest flagship of Apple iPhone 5s feels good to hold in hands
while it empowers you with its manifold high-end features and apps. This
device is touted to be the best iPhones till the date.The aluminium
frame, sleek metal body and a sapphire crystal on the Home Button stands
out this device from its contenders. The design and construction on
this level is unmatched. The handset looks unbelievably thin and light.


The dimension of the device is 123.8 x 58.6 x 7.6 mm (4.87 x 2.31 x
0.30 in) while weighing 112g (3.95 oz). This iPhone is available in
market in three impressive colours-silver, space grey and gold.This is
the first A7 chip 64 bit smartphone in the world. Owing to A7 chip users
can witness the CPU and graphics performance up to 2x faster than A7
chip. Its new M7 coprocessor works in sync with the chipset to ensure
fast performance.This time iPhone 5S supports more network than ever
before, allowing more people across the world experience the fast data
connection speed.

It is the first Apple device that features a
latest fingerprint identity sensor, Touch ID. Just put your finger on
the sensor and unlock your phone. With the help of this Touch ID sensor
you can make online payments for your purchases via PayPal integration.
It knows them whom you trust the most. The touch sensor can be
programmed to recognize up to five fingerprints.

Have a better
photographing experience with the improved iSight camera of this device
which features 8MP sensor, wide aperture and large image sensor. Its 15
percent larger sensor and an aperture of

A Brief Look at Computer Hardware

Computer hardware is a device that is related to computers, and
it is in a physical form. Keyboards, mouse and monitors are examples of
computer hardware that we can touch. In contrast, software such as
Windows operating system is not considered hardware because it does not
have any physical form, nor we can touch it.

Examples

This
hardware is not only found in personal computers, but the term can be
attributed to anything physical which forms part of a larger computer
system or network. Nevertheless, computer hardware found in modern
personal computers include monitor, motherboard, CPU, RAM memory,
expansion cards, power supply, optical disc drive, hard disk, keyboard
and mouse. All of these components of a computer have physical form, and
anyone can touch them. For example, if someone has bought Microsoft
Office disc to install MS Word on their personal computer then it can be
stated that the disc is a type of hardware because it has a physical
form. In contrast, application stored inside that disc e.g. Microsoft
Word is not hardware because it only exists in a digital format, and
does not have any physical aspect.

New Type of Computer Hardware

Similarly, removable media devices such as CD-ROM
drive and CD-W are some common types of this hardware which are used to
store data, and large files. Nowadays, USB flash drives are becoming
much more common, and they are quickly replacing CD-ROM as preferred
hardware to store temporary data. In near future, other PC hardware
called solid state drive will replace hard drives because it contains no
moving part, and takes much less space. Thus, hard drives, USB flash
drives and solid state drives are some other examples of computer
hardware.

PC Hardware or Hardware: What’s the Difference?

Hardware
is a term used for physical objects of technology such as personal
computer, but terms like hardware and computer hardware are also
synonymous. Therefore, it is not uncommon to use terms like hardware and
PC hardware, interchangeably. For example, a CPU can be called either
hardware or computer hardware. Usually, anything physical related to
computers is called PC hardware. Otherwise, objects such as keys, locks,
door handles, electric wires, cutting tools, cutlery, machine and most
things made of metal are generally known as hardware, and found in
hardware stores.

Diagnosing And Troubleshooting Computer Hardware

What is Hardware?

Are these terms familiar to you?
Monitor, RAM, CD drive, CPU, graphic cards are all hardware, or more
accurately, computer hardware. These components make up a computer,
working together with computer software to make a computer work.

Simply put, hardware is the tangible parts of your computer, parts you can touch, feel and so on.

Hardware Failures

As
mentioned before, hardware and software work together to form a fully
functional system, theoretically. However, rarely do you get a fully
functional system all the time. There will almost certainly be
malfunction of hardware, be it within the electronic circuits or even
the whole component itself. Sometimes, the originating factor of the
hardware failure is not the components of the system itself, but due to
outside factors such as environmental disasters like fire, earthquakes
and lightning storm.

Recovery of failed hardware components is not
a big problem by itself. It is basically identifying and replacing the
problematic component. However, hardware failures are most deadly, when
it affects daily routine and affecting critical personal or business
data. This is especially true of the most important component of a
computer system when it comes to storage of data, the hard disk.

The following is a list of common hardware failures:

  • RAM Failures
  • Power Connector
  • Hard Disk
  • Overheating
  • LCD Failures
  • Motherboard
  • USB Box

RAM Failures

Bad RAM is somehow harder to
diagnose as similar symptoms may be caused by software problems, other
hardware problems or even motherboard failure. However if you experience
any of these symptoms, users should check for bad RAM before attempting
any other troubleshooting.

Symptoms:

  • Windows doesn’t start showing different error messages each time.
  • Windows crashes (blue screen) or freezes frequently.
  • Windows crashes as soon as you try to start a program.
  • Unexplained random crashes and freezes without error messages.

Power Adaptor

The common weak spot on any
laptop is the DC power jack. If someone trips over the power adapter
cable while it is still connected to the laptop, there is a high
possibility that the power jack will get severely damaged.

On most
laptops, the DC power jack is soldered directly to the motherboard and
there are only three or four small pins holding it in place, which makes
the power jack rather weak. Any sideways pulling of the DC power cord
while attached to the laptop will usually dislodge at least one of these
pins, breaking the solder around it. Modern laptops use quite a lot of
power, from about 70W to 120W or even more. The bad electrical
connection from the dislodged pin will cause sparks and heating that
will eventually burn a hole through the motherboard and can even be a
fire hazard.

Symptoms which indicates poor contact between the DC power jack and the motherboard:

  • The battery is not charging properly or stays at half charge despite having to use the power adaptor.
  • The screen flickers (the brightness is changing) while the power
    cord is plugged in. This is caused by the laptop switching between DC
    power (screen is brighter) and battery power (screen is dimmer).
  • The DC plug gets hot after a few minutes of use and may even smell of burning.
  • There are “scratching” sounds coming from the DC jack.

How to test for broken power jack:


    1. Remove the battery

    2. Plug in the power cord

    3. Start the laptop

    4. Gently wiggle the DC power plug on the back of the laptop

If the laptop shuts down abruptly (looses power), find
the dealer to re-solder or change the DC power jack as soon as possible
as the motherboard has already started to burn around the dislodged
pins. The manufacturer might offer to replace the whole motherboard;
however the price of a new motherboard together with the labor charge
for installing it will usually cost more than the current value of that
laptop and sometimes can the pricing can cost over a thousand dollars.

Replacing
or re-soldering the DC power jack is not an easy job. It usually takes a
few hours depending on the damage and the model of the laptop. To reach
the power jack, the laptop has to be completely disassembled and have
the motherboard taken out. Then if the board around the dislodged pin is
badly burned, the power jack has to be un-soldered and the board has to
be patched.

After that a different power jack has to be
installed, attached to the case of the laptop and connected with wires
to the motherboard, as the patched board wouldn’t be strong enough to
support the original type of power jack that was soldered directly to
the board.

Hard Disk

Hard disk failures are
the most common computer hardware problems. And laptop hard disks fail
more often than desktop hard disks due to the portability of a laptop as
compared to the rather stagnant laptop. If user knock hard or drop the
laptop even a few inches while the hard disk is being accessed or
powered up, damage can be done to the hard disk.

Symptoms:

  • The laptop starts as usual but when Windows starts to load it goes
    to blue screen with either “UNMOUNTABLE_BOOT_VOLUME”, “hal.dll is
    missing or corrupt” or “WINDOWSSYSTEM32CONFIGSYSTEM” (or similar) is
    missing or corrupt. All these error messages indicate a file system
    problem. Sometimes it can be fixed by just scanning the hard disk for
    errors. However more than half of these cases indicate that the hard
    disk is starting to go bad and is probably developing bad sectors.
  • The laptop starts as usual but Windows freezes on the initial
    “Windows XP” screen, although the blue bar continues to move, and users
    are able to hear feint but continuous clicking. Hard disks have to be
    replaced.
  • As soon as the laptop is started there are loud clicks or grinding
    sounds and Windows doesn’t load. Hard disks have to be replaced as well.
  • Shortly after starting the laptop a message appears (usually on a
    black screen) “SMART test failed. Backup your data immediately and
    replace the hard disk” or similar. Well, that says it all. S.M.A.R.T. is
    a self-test that is build into the hard disk.

In almost all cases the laptop can be started from a
“live” bootable CD and everything works normal. In rare cases the hard
disk PCB (printed circuit board) may get short circuited and even burn.
In this scenario, the laptop won’t start unless the hard disk is
removed.

A good tool to use to check for hard disk lifespan is ADRC’s hard disk checker. It will scan the hard disk for bad sectors and inform you if the drive is still of good usability.

Overheating

Overheating
happens when inadequate airflow from outside the computer’s case across
the CPU and motherboard and back out of the case usually via the power
supply fan and other case fans.

Once the airflow is disrupted,
heat builds up rapidly within the case. This causes components to either
shutdown, if such protection is built in or performs erratically. Over
the long term, overheating can irreversible damage components.

It is also advisable to keep the computer in a dry and shaded room, which is clean and little dust.

LCD Failures

The most common LCD or “Liquid Crystal Display” screen failure is the inverter, cable and backlight.

Symptoms:

  • The laptop appears to start as usual but the screen is black, if users move it, it turns on and works properly. Failed cable.
  • The laptop appears to start as usual but the screen is very dark,
    although it changes colour a little and users can see a very feint
    image. Failed inverter or cable 90%/10%.
  • Immediately after starting the screen has dark pink/red tint and turns dark after a few seconds. Failed backlight.
  • The screen flickers a few times but then turns dark, if users move
    it or tap it lightly on the sides, it flickers again. Failed cable or
    LCD 50%/50%.
  • Screen is either black or white (no picture) and external monitor works. Failed cable or LCD 30%/70%.
  • There are stripes on the screen (either vertical or horizontal) that
    change when users move the screen or tap it lightly on the sides.
    Failed cable or LCD 10%/90%.

Motherboard

Most motherboard related
failures are due to the “On-board” regulated supplies and component
failure within those circuits. The on-board power supply circuit had
partially failed and was overloading subsequent components else the
problem would be with the capacitors which are defective in the first
place.

A motherboard failure on a laptop that is out of warranty
would usually mean that it’s time for a new laptop. The price of a new
motherboard is usually higher than the current value of the laptop.

Symptoms:

Plug in the power adaptor and try to start the laptop.

  • Nothing happens.
  • The “ON” light comes on, the fan spins, but nothing on the screen (black) and you can’t hear the HD working after 10-15 sec.
  • The “ON” light comes on, the fan spins, but after a few seconds the light goes off.
  • After pressing the “ON” button the screen stays black and you can hear a quiet high-pitched sound coming from the laptop.

Corrupted or improper device drivers and operating system

Invalid
or corrupt device drivers can wreck havoc on a server, rendering the
system unbootable in some cases. Device drivers may also conflict with
certain application programs and cause problems with the computer
system.

As Windows Vista has just made its launch, chances are
some hardware is not supported or not supported fully by the new
operating system.

Also, system updates, driver updates can also fix your “hardware” problems.

See updating and fixes

Also,
it helps (occasionally) to call the respective support service for help
on the driver that is with that particular hardware.

Controller Failure:

A
controller failure can act much like a drive failure. However, when a
drive fails, users cannot access that particular drive; when a
controller fails, users cannot get access to all the drives, devices and
any other components that is attached to that particular controller.

A
controller fails because a component or components on the on the
controller board fails. When users trying to boot the system, they
cannot switch on, view, access, or even get hardware conflict messages.

Controller failure occurs due to one of the following reasons:

  • Devices/components not connected properly
      Verify that the cables are properly connecting the device /component to the controller
      If the component fits into a slot, see that the it is flushed in and not loosely connected.

  • Devices/components not setup properly
      Verify that the devices/components is being properly detected and setup in the respective controller setup screen

  • Bad connectors
      Replace the bad connectors with new working ones

  • Bad components
      Replace the component

  • Bad interface board or motherboard
      It is recommended that these components be replaced or that the computer be sent in for servicing

Hardware Failure: The big issue

The big problem, as
mentioned earlier, is not replacing or repairing the non-functional
hardware, but the time lost, interruptions to daily routine (especially
for businesses), and the loss of critical data. If you need a running
system at all times, have a backup system as a fail safe, or even two.
If users want to ensure that none of their critical data is lost in the
event of a hardware problem with their computer, there is only one way
to do it — Back up the data as often as possible.

There are many
different ways to ensure that the data is backed up, and as technology
becomes advances, back up methods become much simpler.

Let’s look
for a moment at what a back up is. Backing up of computer files means
that users are making a copy of the data that will be stored somewhere
other than on the computer. Everyone should always have a back up of at
least the most important files, because should anyone experience a
hardware problem, they could still be able to access the files.

Many
people don’t back up their files, because they don’t know what they
need to back up. Start with those files that cannot easily be recreated.
Then, move on to files to which you make frequent changes just in case
you accidentally change something that you shouldn’t have. Back up your
music collection – because this can be quite expensive to replace in the
event of data loss.

In general, best practice is to back up the files at least monthly and more frequently if users access the files regularly.

Computer Hardware Components And Accessories

Computers
are made of different components or parts, collectively known as PC
hardware. Some of the main hardware PC units include CPU, mouse, display
screen monitor, hard disk, keyboard, CD drive, etc. You can buy a
computer from a branded company or purchase an assembled model through a
professional computer software person. Many a times, when some parts of
a computer get corrupted, you can also buy separate components from any
online or offline computer dealers.

Likewise
computer hardware parts also do include novel items such as scanners,
sound cards, internet modems and even digital cameras. But, every
computer has individual properties like RAM memory, CPU model details,
etc which may vary from other computers.

Let us study about some of the most important computer hardware parts:

* CPU-
This part is the brain of the computer. It is known as Central
Processing Unit and works as a processor. The most popular processors
are manufactured by Intel popular as the Pentium Chip model. Intel
processors are widely used all over the world by most of the computer
manufacturing companies.

* Mouse- This hardware
is essential for desktop models as navigational object, to click on
varied options, selecting different objects and accessing necessary
information on the computer screen. There are two main buttons in the
mouse, to be used to access info. Nowadays, you can find interesting
types of mouse in the market such as laser mouse or ball mouse. But,
they all serve the same purpose to help access computerised info from
the CPU.

* Hard Disk- This is a device that
helps in storing data. The all-round performance of any computer
actually depends on the speed of its hard disk. Higher rotational speed
of the hard disk enables fast and high speed performance by that
particular computer.

* RAM-
It is also known as Random Access Memory, which aids in storing of
temporary information in the CPU. When you switch off the computer, such
temporary info files are erased. The optimum performance of the
computer also depends on the size of its RAM.

* Keyboard-
This is one of the most important part in computer hardware. Keyboard
helps users to enter specific commands by punching of alphabets, numbers
or signs. There are other function keys like Control, Alter, delete, F
keys, Page up, Page down, etc in the keyboard. There are a total of 101
keys in any standard keyboard, and designed in such a way so as to make
typing faster and easier.

Other additional computer hardware
includes scanner, joystick, external drive, printer and servers. Buying
individual computer hardware parts can be a tedious task as there are
variety of selection models, styles and designs to choose from. It is
best to gather some basic first hand info about the specific computer
hardware part that you intend to buy.

You can choose to buy from
online computer hardware retail shops and other hardware dealers. Online
directories can help you sort a list of potential manufacturers or
retailers who are genuine and trustworthy.

Designing Computer Or Gaming Cases

Designing, either computer case or gaming case, is the first &
foremost step while constructing the computer. Many aspects have to be
considered while selecting the casing. For simple computer case, less
functionality is required as compared to the gaming case. While
selecting case, some aspects are concerned about the architecture
whereas other decisive aspects of the case are wholly functional.

To begin with, let’s consider the functional
properties of the case while its’ designing. It is better option to
match the architecture of the case with its functioning rather than to
do it counter-verses. Leading analyzing factor in the decision about the
case is its size and orientation. These are available in a variety of
shapes and sizes including: Mid-tower, Full-tower, & All-in-one
units.

FUNCTIONALITY OF COMPUTER/ GAMING CASING:

Size
limit is the major variation factor in tower casing of both cases;
computer/ gaming case. It limits the space present within the computer
for its functional components. It is a fact that more space means larger
tower casing which is preferable for the hardware up-gradation purposes
at any time in near future.

Most of the tower cases either full
or mid, have a common functionality. These have easy access to USB
ports, headphone & microphone jacks. These can be installed either
in the front side of the cases, or at the bottom. Some also installed
these ports in the middle of the tower casing. The decision of its
installment place depends of where the processor will be attached. This
will help you in choosing the best option that could be availed to
install it at right position on the case.

If your feasibility
option is placing the CPU under the computer table, then either
mid-tower or full tower computer casing option is best. This is because
that both these options have their front ports are placed at the top end
of the casing. Other options are not that much valid which have these
ports lying at the base of the casing.

ARCHITECTURE OF COMPUTER/ GAMING CASE:

Once
the functioning aspect of the computer is decided, the architecture of
the computer is the second aspect to be considered. It is the outside
look of the computer. Customization brings hell lot of options of
creativity in the outer model of the computer/ gaming case. There could
be more designs of casing than the number of people inhaling right now
on earth. Several aspects that should keep in mind while deciding the
layout are:

LEDChrome platingCasing colorInside viewwitvbizoint, if required

Light
display is a common but important factor in decision while designing of
the tower casing. There exist variety of colors but the specific LEDs’
are present in blue, green or red color. Other colors might include
purple, yellow or orange. Though it is unusual of finding LEDs’ in such
colors, it also increases the cost. If cost factor doesn’t bother you,
you can browse these colors of LEDs’.

Black is the most liked
color for a computer case. Computer cases are available in variety of
colors that provide you with the ease of its adjustment at any place. In
the case of colors of gaming case, mostly the gamers want some
distinguishing colors. There is also an option of getting a transparent
case through which you the entire wiring of the computer can be seen
from every side. Manufacturers nowadays provide their consumers with
bunch of colors e.g. blue, green, red, golden yellow or silver. In case,
you are huge color conscious person and want to buy a case of your own
choice, the option is to browse enough to find the one meeting your
specifications.

Computer Engineering Now Everyone Will be Engineer

When we see the demand increasing in the computer software and
hardware, we can definitely foresee the need for increase in the need
of computer experts also. Computer engineers are the ones who have
chosen to be in the profession that is of the computer field. As IT
industry is the fastest growing industry in any country possible there
is no chance that you can fall back with your career. The trend from the
automobile engineering has now shifted to Computer engineering because
of the progress in the technology. The pay packages offered to the
professionals are also very good.

To become a computer expert there are many course
offered these days so that you can get trained and have a qualification
high enough to get a job into a good company. The computer institutes
willingly give the knowledge about the basics of computers as well as
the advanced courses that give you a proper certification. These
training centers make you aware of the things like what computer
hardware actually is, it includes- Monitor, Motherboard, CPU, RAM apart
from these Expansion cards, Hard disk drive, Keyboard etc. the computer
software includes the operating softwares like Linux and Windows.

If
you want to have a job that is not ordinary but of a certain level,
then it is advisable for you to go for certification that makes a
differentiation between you and just a graduate. Many institutes train
the candidates with the CCNA, MCSE certifications and give them the
placements which they actually deserve. With their help nobody can
question your knowledge and skills about computers. If you wish to have a
future with computers you can even go for the courses online. There are
institutes that allow you to give certain exams online only without you
being actually there; this helps in appearing for a curse which is not
within your reach. They may prove to be faulty, if not taken proper
measures while choosing them. The online IT courses can help too but can
ruin also, they take your fees money and might just end up not giving
you the desired results.

The
same measures go for the computer training institutes also. It is your
responsibility to select the correct center and the suitable course that
will benefit you with your computer filled career. With the fast track
life of the people the progress is also fast and so is the need for
computer engineers who take care about the whereabouts of the computer
systems. This has smoothly led the functioning of computers which are
used by all even if they are not experts or professionals. Engineering
is such a subject matter that always is going to be in need. With the
passage of time, this stream is evolving and so the requirement of
engineers is never going down. From mechanical engineering to computer
engineering it has found its own importance and so it can be something
else also tomorrow. But for today it’s obvious for one to go for a
computer field related career.

Important Things to Consider Before Purchasing Computer Hardware

Computer hardware is one of the basic necessities for everyone
who uses a PC or a notebook. It is indeed one of the most lucrative
business ventures these days, as most of us would need to buy computer
hardware parts and components at some point of time. Purchasing computer
hardware might not be an easy task when you intend to buy it from the
brick-and-mortar shops or the internet. It is very important to
understand a few things about computer hardware and components in order
to ensure that you are able to buy the best thing for your PC.

It is very important to do some research and good
homework before planning to buy computer hardware parts. Also, remember
that you should not purchase anything without trying it or checking all
the details. Whether you are buying computer components like
motherboards, CPU, RAM, VGA or hard drives, you must consider the
manufacture and the specifications that are required for best service.
Remember that the component will actually determine the functions of
your computer and therefore you cannot compromise with the same.

In
order to make sure that your PC works well, you would have to choose
the best parts that are now available. Irrespective of the quality of
the software you are using, you have to buy the best quality of hardware
in order to ensure that your computer or laptop works efficiently. If
you have to achieve this, it would be extremely necessary to have sound
knowledge about the latest essential components for computer hardware
that are now available on the market. This will actually enable you to
understand the different hardware parts and you would also have an
understanding about the importance of each and every part.

Remember
that the computer hardware and components add life to a PC. If the
hardware is non-functional, your computer will not work. For example, if
your motherboard is not functioning properly, your machine will stop
all its logical and mathematical operations. Therefore, it is important
to understand the importance and functions of each and every part of the
computer in order to make sure that all the functions are carried out
well.

When
you are planning to buy computer hardware and components, you must also
consider the purpose of buying a particular part. This will actually
allow you to determine the brand and the quality your need. Each and
every part of a computer has some specific functions that one must
understand. Without understanding the functions, it would be impossible
to replace hardware or make necessary amendments. There are many users
who actually do not have any idea about the functions of a particular
part of a computer. When these people set out to purchase something,
they are likely to make mistakes and choose the wrong product.
Therefore, it is very important to have end-to-end knowledge about the
computer components and make sure that the functions of the computer are
carried out effectively. If the hardware functions well, the software
used will work effortlessly.


Important Computer Hardware Components And Parts

Computer
hardware consists of the different components of a computer including
the CPU or the Central Processing Unit, mouse, keyboard, monitor, hard
disk, RAM or memory, drives such as the DVD, CD, optical, tape and so
forth. All these components are essential for the proper functioning of a
personal computer.

Understanding Computer Hardware in Detail

The
whole computer is available with the above mentioned components but it
is also possible to purchase these components individually from many of
the online and offline stores. Some of the most important components
include the following:

Central Processing Unit or the CPU:
the CPU refers to the processor of the computer. Although there are a
wide number of companies that manufacture CPUs or processors for
personal computers, the Pentium chip manufactured by Intel is widely and
commonly used by most of the manufacturers.

Keyboard:
most important computer hardware includes the keyboard which is
essential to enter commands and words. Every key in the keyboard is a
representation of an alphabet, number, sign, function and so forth.
There are keys which represent actions like Delete, Enter, Alt, Ctrl,
Page Up, Page Down, Home, End and many more. Each different key has a
specific function.

There are 101 keys in an ordinary
standard keyboard. Keyboards which are ergonomically designed have
special features to make typing easier. Each key has two characters
which can be typed by pressing the Shift key. The Ctrl, Alt and Shift
keys are known as the command keys.

Mouse:
Important computer hardware also includes the mouse. It is used for
navigating on the computer’s screen, to click on options, to select
objects and to access information. There are usually two buttons on the
mouse- one on the left which is used for selection and one on the right
which is used to access information. There are different types of mouse
available today which include optical mouse, scroll mouse, laser mouse,
ball mouse and so forth. The scroll mouse, or the wheel mouse, has a
plastic wheel in between the left and right buttons on the mouse. This
important computer hardware also includes the optical mouse which sends
optical signals to the computer. The ball mouse includes a ball in the
mouse casing which moves when the mouse is moved on the pad. This
movement sends the required signal to the computer.

Hard disk:
computer hardware also includes hard disk which is a device used for
permanent storage of data. The performance of a computer depends on the
rotation speed of the hard disk. The higher the rotation speed, the
higher the performance of the computer.

RAM or the Random Access Memory:
RAM is also a computer hardware that stores information temporarily.
But however, while rebooting or turning off the computer, this
information will be erased. The performance of the computer depends
largely on the RAM and if the size of the RAM is larger, the computer
will perform better and faster.

Computer hardware
also includes components like sound cards, digital cameras, scanners and
modems. Different types of components are available and it may differ
according to the type of the computer.